• history of minimalism

Minimalism is something we take for granted. The idea that there is virtue in stripping away, that simplicity can be beautiful, and give rise to its own special kind of complexity, is one that feels as old as the world itself – but it’s relatively new.

In music in particular, minimalism was the single most important idea of the last century, the one that made possible virtually all that we now listen to and hold dear, from punk and techno to ambient and grime. Minimalism wasn’t just a movement, it was a paradigm shift: it brought about a sea change in the way that sound is made, heard and thought of.

The first half of the 20th century had seen classical music back itself into a corner. In trying to break with tradition, “serialist” composers like Arnold Schoenberg and Pierre Boulez pursued atonality and dissonance. Technically impressive, the resulting work was also incredibly ugly; radical, certainly, but unlistenable. The real revolution would come later, and would be a whole lot easier on the ears.

Minimalism is one of the most distinctive of all the complex forms of art. Because minimalism is a simple form of artistic expression, in any way have changed. There is no surrealist magic, no conceptual complexity.


  • Discuss two minimalist pieces of work

Minimalist works is the most important feature is simple, may be the single color, single graph, the expression of single. The rise of minimalism is the impact of the art world, a colorful corner of the world in a quiet.

  1. The first picture is a simple little rabbit, but we can very clearly see the rabbit shape, and mint green background on collocation, appear the whole picture special lovely, let a person look very comfortable.
  2. I was especially fond of minimalism, so I have a large collection of minimalist watches, jewelry and so on.The second let watch on the picture let me once again feel I have the love of minimalism, that is the feeling of a clear, there are no complicated emotions.Although minimalism and modern art may not be the same, but they are all the characteristics of an art. 



  • How do you see minimalism influencing art and design today?

If minimalism influence on contemporary art, I think it is minimalism to have played an important role in a cornerstone of contemporary art as pop art.Minimalist elements still exists in contemporary art, a lot of things in our life or contain minimalist elements, I think it very well.Mixed and disorderly colour profusion of contemporary art, minimalism is a clean and quiet place.

  • What is your overall feelings about minimalism? And why do you feel this?

Minimalism is, in my opinion, a simple expression, use the most simple color, graphics, text to express his thoughts.I see it that way because of minimalist art, basic it is could at least, at least try to put all can express express things depend on the little things.A piece of blank paper on a tiny part is used for painting, or writing.


17/10/2016-final piece

Today I am doing my final piece.I use different is the way to do my final piece of painting, collage and show artwork and photoshop in the sketchbook.

Display of the original image and photoshop is particularly simple, I didn’t do too much, I did the interpretation of the images and pictures in the picture below.
I used up the imagination of the series to do an invitation, I will give it the title is We like to party, this is the name of a song. I have a lot of the stickers, please hand and cup, like at a party, everyone is happy.

17/10/2016- Evaluational


In this three weeks, I learned so many different ways to take photos and how to use the photoshop from my teachers and classmates. In the beginning, the reason why I chose this course is that I have a little interest about the photography and I can through this course to improve my fashion design works. But now, I very enjoy it. Because it could gave me more happiness, and it can teach me use the other way to record this world.


    Through this three weeks, I think these classes enhanced my photography level, because before I studied this class, I only like took photos in the trip and I couldn’t took photo very well, but now, I knew how to take good photos with the landscape, with people, with flowers, with buildings, with the moving objects.

    Sometimes, I had some part not very good in my photograph, the teachers won helped me to changed and improve.


    Different courses have different ways to do the sketchbook. In the beginning, I used the way of do the fashion design sketchbook to do the photography sketchbook, but this is no a good way to do, so I changed the other way to do my sketchbook. Through the teachers taught and changed, I thought my sketchbook more and more perfect. Of course, my sketchbook also had many mistakes and bad part, for example because my sketchbook is very small, I couldn’t put the photos into sketchbook very well.


    The final piece of me, I thought it not very good, maybe the reason was I didn’t have so many time to  find some object and take photos suited my title, and I couldn’t used the photoshop very well. So in the past ,  IIn these three weeks, I did not show your best, most of the time I make a mistake, a lot of time did not understand the teacher say, homework done wrong will look around things more carefully. Try my best to finish my want to do things.


    In these three weeks, I did not show your best, most of the time I make a mistake, a lot of time did not understand the teacher say, homework done wrong.So in the later days, I will try to learn the techniques of photo, study English hard until you can listen to understand the teacher all.Whatever I won’t choose this major will be in the future, and photography for me is good, improve photography technology can also improve the quality of my work, so I’ll try and practice more, can make a better work.

15/10/2016-London Trip

15/  10/2016


This is my first time to go to the London with my friends and classmates. The first station was went to the Photographers’ Gallery.

This is a wonderful place to study how to take photo and find inspiration. Have many different kinds of photos here, like these two weeks studied the surrealism and Loop drawing.

I think my photography level is not very good, because I don’t have many ideas in the gallery, I found that every photographer idea comes from the life, there are some very simple but cool and delicate.My life for the details of the capture is not good enough, I’m not careful, so starting today I will start their own to explore around.


In the afternoon, we went to  the second station the Lomography shop. A small shop and it has many photos and lomo cameras here. Originally I want to buy a camera, because with the camera out of photos is very beautiful with special effects.In the shop have a wall above there are a lot of pictures of special beautiful.

I’m only 17 years old, and for the first time I came to this city, beautiful, the whole city is full of artistic breath.I like here.My friends and I together to come here, this is a special experience, thank they tolerate my bad, until three o ‘clock in the afternoon I sat the train back to Cambridge, I am very grateful to their care.Photography is my hobby, and I will always keep my love of photography, because I love, I will carefully to cherish.


​The teacher told us today, our photography class entered the countdown. Every day we learned a lot of things, today we’ll learn duane michals photography skills. Teacher through a set of pictures to let us to understand this way, then let us imitate a set of pictures from this way. I think there is painting a picture in, I will use my mobile phones and friends took a group photo. But not very creative, the teacher also don’t agree to also feel easy. So I try to take the other details.

In the afternoon, the teacher took us to a dark room pictures, use a simple but very senior road. The teacher let us find props to clap, and then I went to the candy store bought three candy jar, then.

11/10/2016-contextual studies

  • pop art

Pop art is short for popular art, popular art), also known as the new realism (Italian new realism Neorealismo), because Pop art of Pop (Pop art) are usually regarded as a word “popular, modern” (popular).It represents a kind of popular culture.In the United States under the influence of modern civilization and an international art movement, more social upper image or drama to the accidental events as the performance content.

In my opinion, pop art is more of a spirit and essence.   Pop art is a living art, based on a different era, the life of advertising, style, books and other aspects of the change. Increased visual sense. Some famous pioneer of American pop art is: j. Johns and r. in lausanne, the biggest impact of the artist is a. warhol, Dane, r. j. lichtenstein, c. Alden berg, t. wei selman, j. g. rosenquist and sculptors segal.Collection of art and the occasional art is generally regarded as two branches of pop art.

  • artists

Roy Fox Lichtenstein  was an American pop artist. During the 1960s, along with Andy Warhol, Jasper Johns, and James Rosenquist among others, he became a leading figure in the new art movement. His work defined the premise of pop art through parody. Inspired by the comic strip, Lichtenstein produced precise compositions that documented while they parodied, often in a tongue-in-cheek manner. His work was influenced by popular advertising and the comic book style. He described pop art as “not ‘American’ painting but actually industrial painting”.  His paintings were exhibited at the Leo Castelli Gallery in New York City.

Richard William Hamilton  was an English painter and collage artist. His 1955 exhibition Man, Machine and Motion(Hatton Gallery, Newcastle upon Tyne) and his 1956 collage Just what is it that makes today’s homes so different, so appealing?, produced for the This Is Tomorrow exhibition of the Independent Group in London, are considered by critics and historians to be among the earliest works of pop art. A major retrospective of his work was at Tate Modern until May 2014.

  • Compare and Contrast two paintings

These two photos as the representative work of pop art, are of color images, are using face painting, look good, different expression may be different.

  • Discuss Pop Arts influence on modern art and the world today.

Maybe pop art is the foundation of modern art, and it can bring inspiration to modern art, color design and so on, and there are many similarities in modern art.Particularly interesting, I also like this kind of art form.


Today is first day in the second week in the photography classes.wp-image-690900049jpg.jpg

In the morning, our teacher taught us to take photos in the studio, we closed the light and used a black background. Our teacher turned the camera into the “m”mode, and turned the time into the bulb,  add the flash to take photos (one pose one flash).we took many photos  used half an hour. we made shape of the name or pose and made pose with the mirror and light.  It was very funny, we were very happy in the studio. The second part was tried to use the photoshop to make a new though two opposite photos (like two people left face in the opposite direction). I not only used my friends face to make it, but also used some landscape to make it. I finished six images before the lunch time.

In the afternoon, we though draw lots to decide the task in the afternoon. I took three key words(animals flowers people). I found these painting in the web.  I made these photos together in the one image. I chose a photo have the flowers and butterflies as the background and made three people sat on the butterflies.


9/10/2016-my idea of the surrealism

It is at the beginning of the French surrealism art and literature genre, and dada produced in the same period, and far-reaching influence on the visual arts.From 1920 to 1930 and prevailed in European literature and art.Its main characteristics, is the so-called “surreal”, “super sense” dream, illusion, etc as the source of artistic creation, think only this, beyond the reality of the “unconscious” can get rid of all, the most true to show the true character of the objective facts.Surrealism to the traditional view of art had a huge impact.Is often referred to as surrealism movement.Or simply the surreal.

This is my first contact with surreal photography.Before I just like to take some real objects.By this time the learning to let I see another kind of method of photography, strange and interesting. Surrealism is a dream, in my opinion, and we can’t see things.In this week I’ve seen a lot of surrealism photography and painting.Thriller, stimulation, rich connotation, bold imagination.A lot of work represents what happened that time, such as war, happiness, sadness.Like man ray photography is given priority to with realistic surrealism photography, whether rayography or photography, can highlight the theme, and very creative.Surrealism is committed to explore the prior level of human experience, tries to break through the logical and real view of reality, try to reality concept and instinct, unconscious and knead the experience of the dream, in order to show the real scene of an absolute or transcendent.Surrealism movement with its fancy style full of fantasy color and exotic, had important influence on aesthetics in the 20th century.

Man ray, jerry uelsmann and Angus McBean is surrealist period on behalf of the photographers.Women as the theme in Manray photographer, using the props and artistic conception and method of combining the photos.Jerry mainly black and white and heavy exposure of shooting pictures, those pictures are very powerful.Angus is mainly in the form of an expression connotation to photograph, those pictures is unique.In short period of surrealism photographers, they are in the dream of express myself in photos of themselves and their ideas.

In addition to photography, is popular during the period of the surrealist painting surreal.Max, Dali and Rene surrealist period is the main of the painter.Their paintings have some similarities and pablo Picasso.Messy, abstract, these words are keywords in drawing.Which one of the three of them, their work and their life is closely linked, the pain of the war, the joy of no sweet without sweat, social phenomenon.As the saying goes, a person’s paintings of the environment in which he lived, or state of mind.

All the works in surrealism, out of an era, the life and the connotation.All artists are in their works to express themselves, to respond to all of their dissatisfaction or joy.That era is the way to express themselves, we, too, may one day we can also create their own expression.

make note with surrealism

Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings. The aim was to “resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality”. Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects and developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself.

Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was, above all, a revolutionary movement.

Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film, and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy, and social theory.


Surrealism grew out of the Dada movement, which was also in rebellion against middle-class complacency. Artistic influences, however, came from many different sources. The most immediate influence for several of the Surrealists was Giorgio de Chirico, their contemporary who, like them, used bizarre imagery with unsettling juxtapositions. They were also drawn to artists from the recent past who were interested in primitivism, the naive, or fantastical imagery, such as Gustave Moreau, Arnold Bocklin, Odilon Redon, and Henri Rousseau. Even artists from as far back as the Renaissance, such as Giuseppe Arcimboldo and Hieronymous Bosch, provided inspiration in so far as these artists were not overly concerned with aesthetic issues involving line and color, but instead felt compelled to create what Surrealists thought of as the “real.”

The Surrealist movement began as a literary group strongly allied to Dada, emerging in the wake of the collapse of Dada in Paris, when André Breton’s eagerness to bring purpose to Dada clashed with Tristan Tzara’s anti-authoritarianism. Breton, who is occasionally described as the ‘Pope’ of Surrealism, officially founded the movement in 1924 when he wrote “The Surrealist Manifesto.” However, the term “surrealism,” was first coined in 1917 by Guillaume Apollinaire when he used it in program notes for the ballet Parade, written by Pablo Picasso, Leonide Massine, Jean Cocteau, and Erik Satie.


Around the same time that Breton published his inaugural manifesto, the group began publishing the journal La Révolution surréaliste, which was largely focused on writing, but also included art reproductions by artists such as de Chirico, Ernst, André Masson, and Man Ray. Publication continued until 1929.

The Bureau for Surrealist Research or Centrale Surréaliste was also established in Paris in 1924. This was a loosely affiliated group of writers and artists who met and conducted interviews to “gather all the information possible related to forms that might express the unconscious activity of the mind.” Headed by Breton, the Bureau created a dual archive: one that collected dream imagery and one that collected material related to social life. At least two people manned the office each day – one to greet visitors and the other to write down the observations and comments of the visitors that then became part of the archive. In January of 1925, the Bureau officially published its revolutionary intent that was signed by 27 people, including Breton, Ernst, and Masson.

Concepts and Styles

Surrealism shared much of the anti-rationalism of Dada, the movement out of which it grew. The original Parisian Surrealists used art as a reprieve from violent political situations and to address the unease they felt about the world’s uncertainties. By employing fantasy and dream imagery, artists generated creative works in a variety of media that exposed their inner minds in eccentric, symbolic ways, uncovering anxieties and treating them analytically through visual means.

Surrealist Paintings

There were two styles or methods that distinguished Surrealist painting. Artists such as Dalí, Tanguy, and Magritte painted in a hyper-realistic style in which objects were depicted in crisp detail and with the illusion of three-dimensionality, emphasizing their dream-like quality. The color in these works was often either saturated (Dalí) or monochromatic (Tanguy), both choices conveying a dream state.

Several Surrealists also relied heavily on automatism or automatic writing as a way to tap into the unconscious mind. Artists such as Miró and Ernst used various techniques to create unlikely and often outlandish imagery including collage, doodling, frottage, decalcomania, and grattage. Artists such as Arp also created collages as stand-alone works.

Hyperrealism and automatism were not mutually exclusive. Miro, for example, often used both methods in one work. In either case, however the subject matter was arrived at or depicted, it was always bizarre – meant to disturb and baffle.

Surrealist Objects and Sculptures

Breton felt that the object had been in state of crisis since the early nineteenth century and thought this impasse could be overcome if the object in all its strangeness could be seen as if for the first time. The strategy was not to make Surreal objects for the sake of shocking the middle class a la Dada but to make objects “surreal” by what he called dépayesment or estrangement. The goal was the displacement of the object, removing it from its expected context, “defamilarizing” it. Once the object was removed from its normal circumstances, it could be seen without the mask of its cultural context. These incongruous combinations of objects were also thought to reveal the fraught sexual and psychological forces hidden beneath the surface of reality.

A limited number of Surrealists are known for their three-dimensional work. Arp, who began as part of the Dada movement, was known for his biomorphic objects. Oppenheim’s pieces were bizarre combinations that removed familiar objects from their everyday context, while Giacometti’s were more traditional sculptural forms, many of which were human-insect hybrid figures. Dalí, less known for his 3D work, did produce some interesting installations, particularly, Rainy Taxi (1938), which was an automobile with mannequins and a series of pipes that created “rain” in the car’s interior.

Surrealist Photography

Photography, because of the ease with which it allowed artists to produce uncanny imagery, occupied a central role in Surrealism. Artists such as Man Ray and Maurice Tabard used the medium to explore automatic writing, using techniques such as double exposure, combination printing, montage, and solarization, the latter of which eschewed the camera altogether. Other photographers used rotation or distortion to render bizarre images.

The Surrealists also appreciated the prosaic photograph removed from its mundane context and seen through the lens of Surrealist sensibility. Vernacular snapshots, police photographs, movie stills, and documentary photographs all were published in Surrealist journals like La Révolution surréaliste and Minotaure, totally disconnected from their original purposes. The Surrealists, for example, were enthusiastic about Eugene Atget’s photographs of Paris. Published in 1926 in La Révolution surréaliste at the prompting of his neighbor, Man Ray, Atget’s imagery of a quickly vanishing Paris was understood as impulsive visions. Atget’s photographs of empty streets and shop windows recalled the Surrealist’s own vision of Paris as a “dream capital.”

Surrealist Film

Surrealism was the first artistic movement to experiment with cinema in part because it offered more opportunity than theatre to create the bizarre or the unreal. The first film characterized as Surrealist was the 1924 Entr’acte, a 22-minute, silent film, written by Rene Clair and Francis Picabia, and directed by Clair. But, the most famous Surrealist filmmaker was of course Luis Bunuel. Working with Dalí, Bunuel made the classic films Un Chien Andalou (1929) and L’Age d’Or (1930), both of which were characterized by narrative disjunction and their peculiar, sometimes disturbing imagery. In the 1930s Joseph Cornell produced surrealist films in the United States, such as Rose Hobart (1936). Salvador Dalí designed a dream sequence for Alfred Hitchcock’s Spellbound (1945).

Rise and Decline of Surrealism

Though Surrealism originated in France, strains of it can be identified in art throughout the world. Particularly in the 1930s and 1940s, many artists were swept into its orbit as increasing political upheaval and a second global war encouraged fears that human civilization was in a state of crisis and collapse. The emigration of many Surrealists to the Americas during WWII spread their ideas further. Following the war, however, the group’s ideas were challenged by the rise of Existentialism, which, while also celebrating individualism, was more rationally based than Surrealism. In the arts, the Abstract Expressionists incorporated Surrealist ideas and usurped their dominance by pioneering new techniques for representing the unconscious. Breton became increasingly interested in revolutionary political activism as the movement’s primary goal. The result was the dispersal of the original movement into smaller factions of artists. The Bretonians, such as Roberto Matta, believed that art was inherently political. Others, like Yves Tanguy, Max Ernst, and Dorothea Tanning, remained in America to separate from Breton. Salvador Dalí, likewise, retreated to Spain, believing in the centrality of the individual in art.

Later Developments

Abstract Expressionism

In 1936, the Museum of Modern Art in New York staged an exhibition entitled Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism, and many American artists were powerfully impressed by it. Some, such as Jackson Pollock, began to experiment with automatism, and with imagery that seemed to derive from the unconscious – experiments which would later lead to his “drip” paintings. Robert Motherwell, similarly, is said to have been “stuck between the two worlds” of abstraction and automatism.

Largely because of political upheaval in Europe, New York rather than Paris became the emergent center of a new vanguard, one that favored tapping the unconscious through abstraction as opposed to the “hand-painted dreams” of Salvador Dalí. Peggy Guggenheim’s 1942 exhibition of Surrealist-influenced artists (Rothko, Gottlieb, Motherwell, Baziotes, Hoffman, Still, and Pollock) alongside European artists Miró, Klee, and Masson, underscores the speed with which Surrealist concepts spread through the New York art community.

Feminism and Women Surrealists

The Surrealists have often been depicted as a tightly knit group of men, and their art often envisioned women as wild “others” to the cultured, rational world. Work by feminist art historians has since corrected this impression, not only highlighting the number of women Surrealists who were active in the group, particularly in the 1930s, but also analyzing the gender stereotypes at work in much Surrealist art. Feminist art critics, such as Dawn Ades, Mary Ann Caws, and Whitney Chadwick, have devoted several books and exhibitions to this subject.

While most of the male Surrealists, especially Man Ray, Magritte, and Dalí, repeatedly focused on and/or distorted the female form and depicted women as muses, much in the way that male artists had for centuries, female Surrealists such as Claude Cahun, UnicaZurn, Lee Miller, Leonora Carrington, and Dorothea Tanning, sought to address the problematic adoption of Freudian psychoanalysis that often cast women as monstrous and lesser. Thus, many female Surrealists experimented with cross-dressing and depicted themselves as animals or mythic creatures.

7/10/2016- do homework

Today we didn’t do anything complex. In the morning, Peter give us a piece of paper, paper write full our homework over the weekend. I have six homework over the weekend, take pictures, do the sketchbook. Throughout the morning, I and my classmates in the classroom to print his photos, print some information for the sketchbook. I guess that’s why we don’t have class on Friday afternoon.  we are going to take a weekend 100 images of the surrealism, this is a little difficult for me, because I don’t know how to clap a surreal photos.  Can’t, can only do our best to do it.
At noon, we go to the school canteen of the library to borrow books to find what we want to find pictures. In my thoughts and surrealism is to see things in dreams and reality. This sounds simple, but it’s difficult to find, and because the photographer tend towards the real photography. I was looking for an hour, finally found the book on the shelf, the name of the book is colour photography.